The Political Economy of the Metropolis in the Global North and South: Connecting, Financing, and Ruling


The metropolis is an unprecedented phenomenon of global transformation, yet we still have no discipline of practice to deal with it. Areas of knowledge such as metropolitan finance, supply chains, transport integration, land management, and infrastructure provision are still exploratory fields. National governments must focus and adapt the new political economy that the metropolis demands. This paper defines and analyzes the complexity of metropolitan structures, describing the differences between metropolises in developed and developing countries, and the connectivity and production links that integrate them. It looks at metropolitan political management and governance as a framework for economics, planning, and financing, both in formal and informal contexts, and discusses this new approach in relation to states and cities at the international and national levels.


Pedro B. Ortiz is currently a senior urban planner at the World Bank in Washington, D.C. Previously, he was Deputy Director of the Council of Architects of Madrid and Director of the Institute for Urban Renewal, a joint venture between the public and private sectors in Madrid. He was also the founder and Director of the Master’s program of Town Planning of the University King Juan Carlos of Madrid. Ortiz was a Partner in the planning consultancy firm Arop & As. Ortiz previously served as Mayor for Madrid’s Central District (Distrito de Salamanca) (1989-1991). He has also been a member of the Madrid City Council (1987- 1995) where he was responsible for the Urban Prospective (1993-1995) and Culture (1991-1993) programs. He has further served as Director of the Strategic Plan for Madrid (1991-1994) and was Director General for Town and Regional Planning for the Government of Madrid Region where he authored the Regional Development Plan (1996) and the Land Planning Law (1997).

Marco Kamiya, a national of Japan and Peru, works globally on urban economy and municipal finance implementing policy studies and field projects for local governments. Based at the UN-Habitat headquarters in Nairobi, Kamiya has been a senior expert on urban economy, public policies, and competitiveness at CAF – Development Bank of Latin America in Caracas, senior Japan Trust Fund Consultant at the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington D.C., and Director of Development Projects at PADECO Co., Ltd., in Tokyo. Kamiya studied economics and international development in Lima, Boston, and Tokyo, and speaks Spanish, English, Portuguese, and Japanese. He works extensively in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.