With continued urbanization around the world, and settlements becoming more interdependent, metropolitan areas are becoming “The New Normal.” This paper highlights common issues creating a need for cooperation among local governments, and what the benefits of joint initiatives in a metropolitan area can be. Approaches are described for how to define an appropriate boundary of a metropolitan area. Metropolitan governance arrangements that are applied around the world are then classified, and their advantages and disadvantages detailed. The paper concludes by outlining key factors that contribute to effective metropolitan governance
Mats Andersson specializes in urban, metropolitan, and city-regional development as an independent consultant. Between 1994 and 2007 he was municipal finance and urban management specialist at the World Bank, and was their country coordinator in China for urban development 2000-2003. Since 2008 his main clients have been the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), GIZ, and USAid. He has published on metropolitan governance and finance, and worked on the subject in China, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Africa. Prior to joining the World Bank he was with PriceWaterhouseCoopers, the Bank of Montreal, and his own consulting firm in Canada, with numerous assignments in Latin America. He is a Swedish national residing in San Francisco; holds MBA degrees from Sweden and the United States; and is a Certified Management Consultant (CMC) by the Canadian Association of Management Consultants (CAMC).