The Negotiated City: London Governance for a Sustainable World City


City Profile:

Capital and most populous city of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. It is one of the world's leading financial centers and has the fifth-or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world. Its estimated mid-2015 population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, and accounting for 12.5 per cent of the UK population.




Greg Clark is an international cities expert and advisor to several global cities including London, São Paulo, Singapore, New York, and Hong Kong. His portfolio includes work as Senior Fellow at the Urban Land Institute (Europe), Chief Advisor and Chairman of the OECD’s Forum on Local Development and Investment, Lead Advisor on the World Bank Urbanisation Knowledge Forum, a Global Fellow of the Brookings Institution in Washington, Associate of LSE Cities, Chairman of British BIDs and a Visiting Professor at Cass Business School. He is author of more than 10 books and several major reports on city development. From 1989 to 2004 he held a number of key roles in organisations leading London’s development agenda. He is presently researching and writing The Honor Chapman Report on London’s Competitiveness, 1992 to 2022.

Tim Moonen is the Director of Intelligence at The Business of Cities Ltd, an advisory firm based in London. Moonen specialises in the governance, leadership, and comparative performance of cities. Project clients and content partners include the Brookings Institution, Future Cities Catapult, OECD LEED, and the Oslo Region. He also manages the bi-annual review of over 200 city benchmarks and indexes, in partnership with Jones Lang LaSalle. Tim has a Ph.D. in politics and international studies from the University of Bristol. He also holds degrees from the University of Cambridge and the Universidad Europea de Madrid.

Jonathan Couturier is a research fellow at The Business of Cities in London. He specialises in urban data, benchmarking, and metropolitan governance, and has co-authored work for the Urban Land Institute and Overseas Development Institute. He holds degrees from the London School of Economics and Political Science and University College London.



London is a negotiated city that has undertaken multiple, incremental reforms over the past 25 years. London is an example of a city whose metropolitan governance has gone through several important cycles over three decades, from a structure largely determined by national government toward a more negotiated and distributed system. In that time, the city has experienced the abolition of citywide government, the creation of a national office for London, the increasing self-organisation of business and civic communities, and eventually the creation of a two-tier metropolitan government. Twenty first century London has been able to develop robust strategies for the sustainable development of transport, infrastructure, spatial growth, the economy, and environment. This has been aided by incremental accrual of powers to its Mayor, actively engaged central government ministries, positive collaboration across the 33 boroughs, and responsible leadership from business and civil society leadership networks. Although challenges to sustainable growth remain, in many respects London has emerged as an archetypal negotiated city whose hallmarks of pragmatism and compromise are critical ingredients as Europe’s largest city grows towards 10 million people.